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Common steps in the process of recruitment

Common steps in the process of recruitment....Due to changes in internal circumstances (e.g., higher demand, introduction of a new job etc.), a business may need to start the....
Common steps in the process of recruitment

The process of recruitment is a critical aspect of human resource management, pivotal to the sustenance and growth of any organization. Effective recruitment strategies ensure that a business attracts and selects the best candidates to fill job vacancies, thus maintaining operational efficiency and competitive advantage. The recruitment process can be categorized into three main steps: identification, application, and selection, each with its intricacies and strategic importance. Additionally, businesses must decide between internal and external recruitment based on their specific needs and circumstances. This comprehensive analysis explores these recruitment steps and strategies in detail, providing insights into their execution and implications, supplemented by industry examples relevant to IB Business & Management studies.


The recruitment process begins with the identification stage, where specific needs within the organization are recognized, often due to changes such as higher demand or the introduction of a new job role.

Job Description: This document outlines the essential duties, responsibilities, and objectives of the job. It serves as a foundational reference for both recruiters and candidates, ensuring clarity about the role.

Person Specification: This details the required skills, qualifications, and experience desirable in candidates, helping to attract those who are most suitable for the position.

Decision on Recruitment Source: Businesses must decide whether to recruit internally, promoting or transferring existing employees, or externally, bringing in new talent from outside the organization.

Industry Example: When Google identifies the need for new software engineers due to expanding its product lines, it meticulously crafts job descriptions and person specifications to attract candidates with the specific skills and innovative mindset needed for the role.


The application phase involves reaching out to potential candidates through job advertisements and managing received applications.

Job Advertisement: The advert communicates the job description and person specification, placed in strategic locations to reach the target audience, which could include online job boards, industry publications, and social media platforms.

Handling Applications: Businesses may choose to process applications in-house or outsource to a recruitment agency, depending on resources and the volume of responses expected.

Industry Example: Starbucks, known for its strong brand and employee benefits, places job adverts on its careers page and popular job portals, as well as using social media to reach potential baristas and managers, emphasizing its culture and opportunities for advancement.


The final step is selecting the best candidate from the pool of applicants, a critical phase that determines the quality of the new hire.

Shortlisting: Applicants are screened based on their alignment with the job description and person specification, narrowing down the pool to those most fitting.

Interviews: Shortlisted candidates are invited for interviews, which may include behavioral questions, technical assessments, and, in some cases, group exercises or presentations.

Industry Example: Amazon conducts rigorous interview processes for its corporate roles, involving multiple rounds that assess technical skills, cultural fit, and alignment with its leadership principles, ensuring candidates meet the high standards required for the positions.

Internal vs. External Recruitment

Internal Recruitment: This strategy involves filling vacancies with current employees through promotions or transfers. It can boost morale and reduce onboarding times but may limit the influx of new ideas.

External Recruitment: Hiring from outside introduces fresh perspectives and diverse skills to the organization. While it may require more extensive onboarding, it is essential for bringing in specialized skills or when internal talent pools are insufficient.

Industry Example: IBM often employs a blend of internal and external recruitment strategies, promoting internal talent for leadership roles while externally hiring for specialized technical positions to infuse innovation and adapt to rapidly changing technology landscapes.


The recruitment process, encompassing identification, application, and selection phases, is fundamental to building a capable and effective workforce. The decision between internal and external recruitment depends on the organization’s specific needs, culture, and strategic goals. The examples of Google, Starbucks, Amazon, and IBM illustrate varied approaches to recruitment, highlighting the importance of a well-structured and strategic recruitment process. For IB Business & Management students, understanding these recruitment strategies and their practical applications is crucial for developing effective human resource management skills, essential for any future business leader or manager.


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