Business & ManagementIB

Types of training

Types of training....On the job training done while the employee is doing their normal job while at the workplace....
Types of training

On the job training


  • Define training within the context of Human Resource Development (HRD).
  • Introduce the concept of On the Job Training (OJT), highlighting its prevalence in organizational training programs.

The Concept of On the Job Training (OJT)

  • Describe OJT as training provided to employees at their workplace, utilizing the resources and real work environment.
  • Discuss the various forms of OJT, including shadowing, mentoring, job rotation, and apprenticeships.

Advantages of On the Job Training


  • Analyze how OJT saves costs related to external training programs, including travel, accommodation, and external trainer fees.

Relevance and Practicality

  • Discuss the immediate applicability of skills learned through OJT, enhancing job performance and productivity.

Minimal Disruption

  • Examine how OJT integrates learning with day-to-day tasks, reducing downtime and maintaining operational efficiency.

Teamwork and Relationship Building

  • Highlight how OJT fosters a collaborative culture by enhancing interpersonal relationships and teamwork within the workplace.


  • Note the logistical advantages of OJT for both employees and trainers, with training delivered in a familiar environment.

Disadvantages of On the Job Training

Propagation of Bad Practices

  • Discuss how incorrect methods or habits from trainers may be transferred to trainees, potentially embedding poor practices within the organization.

Trainer Competency

  • Examine the risks associated with trainers who may possess excellent operational skills but lack up-to-date training methodologies or effective communication skills.

Impact on Productivity

  • Analyze how the dual role of employees as trainers can impact their workload and overall productivity, possibly leading to delays in project completion.

Resource Limitations

  • Consider how the effectiveness of OJT may be constrained by the availability of training resources within the workplace.

Learning Curve

  • Discuss the potential for reduced immediate productivity as employees gradually acquire the necessary skills and knowledge.

Industry Example: The Hospitality Sector

  • Provide a detailed case study of a hotel chain implementing OJT for new staff.
    • Outline the training program, including orientation, shadowing experienced staff, and rotation across different departments.
    • Analyze the impact of OJT on service quality, employee satisfaction, and customer experience.
    • Discuss how the hotel chain addresses the challenges associated with OJT, including measures to ensure the quality and consistency of training.

Induction training 


  • Define induction training within the broader context of employee orientation and onboarding processes.
  • Outline the significance of induction training in integrating new employees into the organization.

The Purpose and Structure of Induction Training

  • Discuss the objectives of induction training, emphasizing its role in acclimating new hires to their roles, the company culture, and the organizational expectations.
  • Describe the typical structure of an induction program, noting variations across different types of organizations.

Advantages of Induction Training

Establishing Expectations and Work Habits

  • Examine how clear communication of job roles and organizational standards during induction sets a foundation for professional behavior and performance.

Understanding Corporate Culture

  • Analyze the importance of familiarizing new employees with the company’s values, ethics, and practices, facilitating smoother integration into the workplace.

Accelerating the Settling-In Process

  • Discuss the role of induction training in reducing the time it takes for new employees to become productive members of the team.

Boosting Morale and Confidence

  • Highlight how providing new hires with the necessary knowledge and resources through induction can enhance their confidence and job satisfaction.

Disadvantages of Induction Training

Time and Resource Intensive

  • Consider the investment required to develop and deliver comprehensive induction programs, including the allocation of staff time and organizational resources.

Disruption to Regular Operations

  • Examine the potential for induction training to divert key staff from their primary responsibilities, impacting productivity.

Risk of Information Overload

  • Analyze how the breadth and depth of information presented during induction can overwhelm new employees, potentially diminishing the effectiveness of the training.

Challenges in Large Organizations

  • Discuss the logistical complexities of delivering induction training in large firms, including consistency of messaging and personalization of content.

Industry Example: Healthcare Sector

  • Provide a detailed case study of a hospital implementing an induction training program for new nursing staff.
    • Outline the components of the induction program, including orientation sessions, shadowing experienced nurses, and introductions to hospital protocols and patient care standards.
    • Analyze the impact of the induction training on nursing staff readiness, patient care quality, and employee retention rates.
    • Discuss strategies employed by the hospital to address the challenges associated with induction training, such as modular sessions, digital resources, and feedback mechanisms.



  • Define mentoring within the context of on-the-job training, emphasizing its role in knowledge transfer and skill development.
  • Introduce the concept of the mentoring dyad (mentor and mentee) and the significance of this relationship in professional development.

The Nature and Types of Mentoring

  • Discuss the various forms of mentoring, including traditional one-on-one mentoring, reverse mentoring, and group mentoring.
  • Explore the characteristics that distinguish formal from informal mentoring programs.

Advantages of Mentoring

Personalized Knowledge Transfer

  • Analyze how mentors can tailor their guidance and advice to the specific needs and learning styles of mentees, enhancing the effectiveness of the learning experience.

Creation of Synergy

  • Discuss the synergistic effects of mentoring relationships, where the sharing of experiences and insights benefits both mentor and mentee, fostering a collaborative learning environment.

Development of a Supportive Culture

  • Highlight how effective mentoring contributes to the creation of a positive organizational culture, where employees feel valued and supported in their professional growth.

Flexibility of the Mentoring Process

  • Examine the adaptability of mentoring, which can adjust to the evolving needs of mentees and organizational dynamics.

Disadvantages of Mentoring

Time and Resource Investment

  • Consider the significant time commitment required from mentors, which can impact their own work responsibilities and productivity.

Risk of Incompatible Pairings

  • Explore the challenges associated with mismatched mentor-mentee pairings, including differences in personality, working style, or expectations that can hinder the mentoring relationship.

Need for Long-Term Commitment

  • Discuss the necessity of sustained engagement in mentoring relationships, which may strain resources and focus in fast-paced or dynamic business environments.

Costs of Training Mentors

  • Analyze the potential financial implications of developing and sustaining a mentorship program, including training mentors and monitoring the program’s effectiveness.

Industry Example: The Technology Sector

  • Provide an in-depth case study of a tech company, such as Google, that has implemented a successful mentoring program for software engineers.
    • Detail the structure of the program, including matching criteria, objectives, and support mechanisms.
    • Examine the outcomes of the mentoring program, such as accelerated skill development, enhanced job satisfaction, and increased innovation within teams.
    • Discuss how the company addresses the challenges associated with mentoring, including program evaluation, mentor training, and ensuring a good fit between mentors and mentees.

Off the job training 


  • Define off-the-job training within the broader context of employee development strategies.
  • Outline the significance of off-the-job training in enhancing employee skills and knowledge.

The Nature of Off-the-Job Training

  • Discuss the various forms of off-the-job training, including workshops, seminars, conferences, and formal education programs.
  • Explore the criteria for selecting appropriate off-the-job training methods based on organizational goals and employee needs.

Advantages of Off-the-Job Training

Access to External Expertise

  • Analyze how off-the-job training enables organizations to benefit from industry experts and specialized knowledge that may not be available internally.
  • Highlight the impact of this external expertise on innovation and competitive advantage.

Diversity of Learning Opportunities

  • Discuss the broad spectrum of training opportunities available off-site, including advanced technologies, management techniques, and emerging industry trends.
  • Consider the role of professional development courses in fostering a culture of continuous learning.

Enhanced Learning Environment

  • Examine the benefits of learning in a distraction-free environment, where employees can fully engage with the training material and facilitators.
  • Explore the impact of immersive learning experiences on knowledge retention and application.

Networking Opportunities

  • Highlight the value of networking at off-site training events, including the exchange of ideas, collaboration opportunities, and professional relationship building.

Disadvantages of Off-the-Job Training

Potential for Operational Disruption

  • Consider the challenges associated with scheduling off-site training, including potential impacts on productivity and project timelines.
  • Discuss strategies for minimizing operational disruptions, such as staggered training schedules.


  • Analyze the financial implications of off-the-job training, including trainer fees, venue costs, transportation, and accommodation.
  • Explore cost-effective alternatives and the potential return on investment (ROI) of off-site training programs.

Transferability of Skills

  • Examine the debate over the applicability of skills learned off-site to the specific context and needs of the organization.
  • Discuss methods for enhancing the transfer of learning, such as post-training action plans and support.

Scheduling Challenges

  • Highlight the logistical complexities of coordinating off-site training for employees, considering workloads and project commitments.
  • Explore solutions for scheduling training, such as offering multiple session dates or integrating e-learning components.

Industry Example: The Healthcare Sector

  • Provide a detailed case study of a hospital implementing an off-the-job training program for its nursing staff.
    • Outline the objectives of the training program, including advanced patient care techniques and the use of new medical technologies.
    • Examine the outcomes of the training, such as improved patient outcomes, increased staff satisfaction, and enhanced operational efficiency.
    • Discuss how the hospital addresses the challenges associated with off-the-job training, including cost management, scheduling, and ensuring the relevance of training content.

Cognitive training 


  • Define cognitive training within the context of professional development.
  • Highlight its importance in enhancing decision-making, problem-solving, and knowledge acquisition skills in dynamic business environments.

The Essence of Cognitive Training

  • Explore the concept of cognitive training, focusing on its aim to improve mental processes such as memory, attention, and problem-solving abilities.
  • Discuss the types of cognitive skills targeted by such training programs, including analytical thinking, creative problem-solving, and effective decision-making.

Advantages of Cognitive Training

Enhanced Mental Processes and Knowledge Acquisition

  • Analyze how cognitive training equips employees with the mental tools to process information efficiently, leading to improved job performance.
  • Discuss the role of cognitive training in facilitating continuous learning and adaptability in rapidly changing industries.

Improved Decision-Making and Problem-Solving Abilities

  • Examine the impact of cognitive training on employees’ capacity to make informed decisions and tackle complex problems effectively.
  • Highlight the importance of these skills in strategic roles within organizations, such as investment banking and marketing.

Disadvantages of Cognitive Training

Limited Applicability to Diverse Employee Goals

  • Discuss how cognitive training programs might not align with the personal and professional development goals of all employees, affecting engagement and motivation.

High Costs of Implementation

  • Consider the financial investment required to develop and deliver effective cognitive training programs, including the use of specialized trainers and technology.

Challenges in Meeting Organizational Needs

  • Analyze the potential misalignment between the outcomes of cognitive training programs and the specific skill gaps or strategic objectives of an organization.

Difficulty in Measuring Training Outcomes

  • Examine the challenges associated with assessing the effectiveness of cognitive training, including quantifying improvements in cognitive skills and their direct impact on job performance.

Industry Example: Investment Banking

  • Provide a detailed case study of a leading investment bank that implemented a cognitive training program for its analysts and associates.
    • Outline the structure of the training program, including modules on analytical reasoning, financial modeling, and risk assessment.
    • Discuss the measurable outcomes of the training, such as enhanced deal evaluation capabilities, quicker response times in dynamic market conditions, and improved overall team performance.
    • Analyze how the bank addressed the challenges associated with cognitive training, including tailoring the program to fit diverse employee goals and measuring the ROI of the training initiative.

Behavioural training 


  • Define behavioral training within the context of employee development.
  • Highlight its significance in enhancing interpersonal skills crucial for effective workplace interactions and performance.

Understanding Behavioral Training

  • Discuss the scope of behavioral training, emphasizing its focus on developing interpersonal skills such as communication, emotional intelligence, stress management, and teamwork.
  • Explore the theoretical underpinnings of behavioral training, including behaviorism and cognitive-behavioral approaches.

Objectives of Behavioral Training

  • Examine the primary goals of behavioral training, such as improving employee well-being, enhancing team dynamics, and increasing overall productivity.
  • Highlight the role of behavioral training in conflict resolution and creating a positive workplace culture.

Components and Methodologies

  • Describe various components and methodologies used in behavioral training programs, including role-playing, simulation exercises, group discussions, and feedback sessions.
  • Discuss the importance of a tailored approach that considers the specific needs and dynamics of the workforce.

Advantages of Behavioral Training

  • Analyze the benefits of behavioral training, including improved communication skills, enhanced emotional regulation, better stress management, and increased job satisfaction.
  • Consider the long-term impact of behavioral training on organizational success and employee retention.

Challenges and Considerations

  • Discuss potential challenges in implementing behavioral training programs, such as participant resistance, the need for ongoing reinforcement, and measuring training effectiveness.
  • Explore strategies for overcoming these challenges, including securing management buy-in, providing continuous support, and integrating training outcomes into performance assessments.

Industry Example: Healthcare Sector

  • Provide a detailed case study of a healthcare organization that implemented a behavioral training program for its staff.
    • Outline the specific interpersonal skills targeted by the training, such as empathetic communication with patients, teamwork in high-pressure situations, and stress resilience.
    • Analyze the impact of the training program on patient care quality, employee well-being, and organizational efficiency.
    • Discuss how the organization addressed the challenges associated with behavioral training, including staff engagement and tracking improvements in patient satisfaction.

Best Practices for Effective Behavioral Training

  • Highlight best practices in designing and delivering behavioral training programs, such as incorporating experiential learning, ensuring relevance to day-to-day activities, and fostering a supportive learning environment.
  • Emphasize the importance of follow-up and reinforcement to ensure lasting behavioral changes.


  • Summarize the critical role of behavioral training in personal and professional development, underscoring its contribution to fostering a collaborative and high-performing workplace.
  • Reflect on the strategic integration of behavioral training into broader HR and organizational development initiatives.
  • Offer recommendations for organizations looking to implement or enhance their behavioral training programs, focusing on customization, support mechanisms, and continuous improvement.

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