The International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme offers a variety of assessments for students, including Internal Assessments (IAs), which are pieces of coursework marked by students’ teachers. The Mathematics Internal Assessment follows the same assessment criteria across Mathematics Analysis and Approaches (AA) and Mathematics Application and Interpretation (AI). It forms 20% of a student’s Mathematics grade.

In this article, we will cover everything you need to know about the IB Mathematics IA, including the structure, assessment criteria, and some tips for success.

## What is the Mathematics IA?

The Maths IA is an individual exploration of an area of mathematics, based on the student’s own work with guidance from their teacher. Mathematical communication is an important part of the IA, which should be demonstrated through both effective written communication and use of formulae, diagrams, tables, and graphs. The exploration should be 12 to 20 pages long and students will spend 10 to 15 hours on the work.

## What are the assessment criteria?

Like most IB IAs, the IB Maths IA is marked on a group of 5 criteria which add up to 20 marks. Look through these carefully before and during your investigation, to ensure that you are hitting the criteria to maximise your mark.

** Criterion A: Communication (4 marks)** – This refers to the organisation and coherence of your work, and the clarity of your explanations. The investigation should be coherent, well-organized, and concise.

** Criterion B: Mathematical Presentation (4 marks)** – This refers to how well you use mathematical language, including notation, symbols and terminology. Your notation should be accurate, sophisticated, and consistent. Define your key terms and present your data in a varied but proper way (including labelling those graphs).

– There should be evidence of outstanding personal engagement in the IA. This is primarily demonstrated through showing unique thinking, not just repeating analysis found in textbooks. This can be evidenced through analysing independently or creatively, presenting mathematical ideas in their own way, exploring the topic from different perspectives, making and testing predictions.**Criterion C: Personal Engagement (3 marks)**

** Criterion D: Reflection (3 marks)** – This refers to how you evaluate both your sources and the strengths and weaknesses of any methodology you use. There should be “substantial evidence of critical reflection”. This could be demonstrated by considering what another stage of investigation could be, discussing implications of results, discussing strengths and weaknesses of approaches, and considering different perspectives.

** Criterion E: Use of Mathematics (6 marks)** –

Note that only 6 marks are available for the actual use of mathematics! The focus of the investigation is on explaining well and analysing with genuine, personal curiosity. The level of mathematics expected also depends on the level the subject is studied at: Standard Level students’ maths is expected to be “correct”, while Higher Level students’ maths is expected to be “precise” and demonstrate “sophistication and rigour”.

Examiners are primarily looking for thorough understanding, which also requires clear communication of the principles behind the mathematics used – not just coming to the right answer.

## What are some example research questions?

Students should choose a research area that they are interested in and have a comprehensive understanding of. Often, student may choose to consult with an expert **IB Maths tutor** to help them decide a good question. It should have a link to something of personal interest, as indicated by Criterion C. Popular topics include Calculus, Algebra and Number (proof), Geometry, Statistics, and Probability, or Physics. Some students make links between Math and other subjects – a good way to combine knowledge from your other IB courses!

Here are examples with details of potential research questions that could inspire your Mathematics IA:

`1 - Investigating the properties of fractals and their relationship to chaos theory.`

Use computer software or mathematical equations to generate and analyze fractals. Explore the patterns and properties of the fractals, such as self-similarity and complexity. Investigate how changes in the initial conditions or parameters affect the resulting fractals. Analyze the relationship between fractals and chaos theory, and how fractals can be used to model chaotic systems. Present findings through visual representations and data analysis.

`2 - Analyzing the behavior of recursive sequences and their applications in computer science and cryptography.`

Use mathematical formulas to generate recursive sequences and analyze their behavior. This could involve plotting the sequences and observing patterns, finding closed-form expressions for the sequences, and exploring their applications in computer science and cryptography. For example, recursive sequences can be used in algorithms for sorting and searching data, and in encryption methods such as the Fibonacci cipher. The results of the analysis could be presented in a research paper or presentation.

`3 - Exploring the properties of different types of differential equations and their applications in physics and engineering.`

Conduct research on the different types of differential equations and their applications in physics and engineering. This could involve studying examples of differential equations used in fields such as fluid dynamics, electromagnetism, and quantum mechanics. The properties of each type of differential equation could be analyzed, such as their order, linearity, and homogeneity. The applications of each type of differential equation could also be explored, such as how they are used to model physical systems and solve engineering problems. The findings could be presented in a report or presentation.

`4 - Investigating the properties of chaotic dynamical systems and their applications in physics and biology.`

Use computer simulations to model chaotic dynamical systems and explore their behavior. This could involve studying the Lorenz attractor, the logistic map, or other well-known examples of chaotic systems. The simulations could be used to investigate the sensitivity of the systems to initial conditions, the presence of strange attractors, and other key features of chaotic dynamics. The results could then be applied to real-world systems in physics and biology, such as weather patterns, population dynamics, or chemical reactions.

`5 - Designing an optimized route for a delivery service to minimize travel time and fuel costs.`

Use a computer program or algorithm to analyze data on the locations of delivery destinations and the most efficient routes to reach them. The program would need to take into account factors such as traffic patterns, road conditions, and the size and weight of the packages being delivered. The output would be a map or list of optimized delivery routes that minimize travel time and fuel costs. This could be used to improve the efficiency and profitability of the delivery service.

`6 - Developing a model to predict the spread of infectious diseases in a population.`

Collect data on the population size, infection rate, and transmission rate of the disease in question. Use this data to create a mathematical model that simulates the spread of the disease over time. The model should take into account factors such as population density, age distribution, and vaccination rates. The accuracy of the model can be tested by comparing its predictions to real-world data on the spread of the disease. The model can be used to explore different scenarios, such as the impact of different vaccination strategies or the effectiveness of quarantine measures.

`7 - Investigating the relationship between different geometric shapes and their properties.`

Conduct a series of experiments in which different geometric shapes are tested for various properties such as volume, surface area, and weight. The data collected could then be analyzed to determine if there is a relationship between the shape of an object and its properties. This could involve creating 3D models of the shapes using computer software, or physically measuring the shapes using laboratory equipment. The results could be presented in a graph or chart to illustrate any trends or patterns that emerge.

`8 - Analyzing the behavior of projectile motion and its applications in physics.`

Conduct experiments in which a projectile is launched at different angles and velocities, and its trajectory is tracked using high-speed cameras or other measurement devices. The data collected can be used to analyze the motion of the projectile and determine its velocity, acceleration, and other physical properties. This information can then be applied to real-world scenarios, such as designing rockets or calculating the trajectory of a ball in sports. Additionally, the behavior of projectile motion can be studied in different environments, such as in the presence of air resistance or in a vacuum, to better understand its applications in physics.

`9 - Developing a model to predict the path of a planet based on gravitational forces.`

Collect data on the mass, position, and velocity of the planet at a given time. Use the law of gravitation to calculate the gravitational forces acting on the planet from other celestial bodies in the system. Use this information to predict the path of the planet over time, taking into account any changes in velocity or direction caused by gravitational forces. The accuracy of the model could be tested by comparing its predictions to observations of the planet’s actual path.

`10 - Investigating the properties of conic sections and their applications in geometry and physics.`

Use mathematical equations to explore the properties of conic sections such as circles, ellipses, parabolas, and hyperbolas. Investigate their applications in geometry, such as in the construction of satellite dishes and reflectors, and in physics, such as in the orbits of planets and comets. Develop models and simulations to demonstrate these applications and their impact on real-world scenarios.

`11 - Modeling the spread of a virus through a population and analyzing the effectiveness of different intervention strategies.`

Develop a mathematical model that simulates the spread of the virus through a population. The model would need to take into account factors such as the infectiousness of the virus, the rate of transmission between individuals, and the effectiveness of different intervention strategies such as social distancing or vaccination. The model could then be used to analyze the effectiveness of different intervention strategies and predict the potential impact of future outbreaks. The output of the model would be a set of data and visualizations that show the predicted spread of the virus and the effectiveness of different intervention strategies.

`12 - Modeling the spread of a rumor or disease through a network and analyzing the impact of network topology.`

Develop a mathematical model that simulates the spread of the rumor or disease through a network. The model should take into account factors such as the probability of transmission between individuals, the rate of recovery or decay of the rumor or disease, and the structure of the network. The impact of network topology could be analyzed by comparing the spread of the rumor or disease in different types of networks, such as random, scale-free, or small-world networks. The results of the simulation could be visualized using graphs or heat maps to show the spread of the rumor or disease over time.

`13 - Developing a model to predict the growth of a population over time.`

Collect data on the current population size and growth rate of the population over a period of time. Use this data to develop a mathematical model that predicts the population growth rate over time. The model could be tested by comparing its predictions to actual population growth data from previous years. The model could also be used to predict future population growth and to identify factors that may affect the population’s growth rate.

`14 - Investigating the properties of exponential functions and their applications in finance and economics.`

Develop a mathematical model for an exponential function, including its domain and range, growth/decay rate, and asymptotes. Use this model to analyze real-world scenarios in finance and economics, such as compound interest, population growth, or stock market trends. Graph the function and interpret the results in terms of the original problem.

`15 - Developing a model to predict the outcomes of a sporting event based on historical data and team statistics.`

Collect historical data on the two teams playing in the sporting event, including their win-loss records, player statistics, and any relevant trends or patterns. Use this data to develop a statistical model that predicts the outcome of the game based on these factors. The model can then be tested and refined using additional data and feedback from experts in the field. The final output would be a prediction of the outcome of the game, along with a measure of the model’s accuracy and any potential limitations or uncertainties.

`16 - Analyzing the behavior of different types of sequences and their convergence or divergence.`

Use mathematical models and computer simulations to analyze the behavior of different types of sequences. This would involve testing various sequences for convergence or divergence, and comparing their behavior under different conditions. The results of these simulations could be used to develop new mathematical theories and algorithms for analyzing sequences, and could have applications in fields such as computer science, physics, and engineering.

`17 -Investigating the properties of different types of angles and their relationship to geometry and trigonometry.`

Conduct a study of different types of angles, including acute, obtuse, right, and straight angles. Explore their properties, such as their degree measurements, relationships to other angles, and their use in geometry and trigonometry. This could involve creating visual aids, such as diagrams or graphs, to illustrate the concepts being studied. The results of the study could be presented in a report or presentation format, highlighting the key findings and insights gained from the investigation.

`18 - Developing a model to predict the outcomes of a game based on probability theory.`

Collect data on the outcomes of previous games, including the teams playing, the score, and any relevant factors such as weather conditions or injuries. Use this data to calculate the probability of each team winning based on various factors. Develop a model that takes into account these probabilities and predicts the outcome of future games. The model would need to be tested and refined using additional data and statistical analysis. The final output would be a reliable model for predicting the outcomes of games based on probability theory.

`19 - Analyzing the behavior of different types of inequalities and their applications in algebra and calculus.`

Create a graph to visually represent the behavior of different types of inequalities, such as linear, quadratic, and exponential inequalities. Use examples to demonstrate how these inequalities can be applied in algebra and calculus, such as finding the maximum or minimum value of a function subject to certain constraints. Additionally, provide real-world applications of these concepts, such as optimizing production processes or predicting population growth.

`20 - Investigating the properties of different types of graphs and their applications in computer science and social science.`

Conduct a literature review to identify the different types of graphs and their applications in computer science and social science. Develop a set of criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of different types of graphs in conveying information and insights. Use these criteria to analyze and compare several examples of graphs from each field. Based on the analysis, identify the most effective types of graphs for different types of data and research questions in each field. Develop guidelines for selecting and creating effective graphs in computer science and social science research.

`21 - Analyzing the behavior of different types of matrices and their applications in linear algebra and quantum mechanics.`

Conduct experiments to test the behavior of different types of matrices in linear algebra and quantum mechanics. For example, in linear algebra, the inverse of a matrix can be calculated and used to solve systems of linear equations. In quantum mechanics, matrices are used to represent quantum states and operators. The behavior of these matrices can be analyzed by performing matrix operations and observing the resulting changes in the system. The applications of these matrices in various fields can also be explored and analyzed.

`22 - Developing a model to predict the outcomes of a business investment based on market trends and financial data.`

Collect and analyze market trends and financial data relevant to the business investment. This could include factors such as industry growth rates, consumer demand, and financial statements of similar companies. Using this data, develop a predictive model that takes into account various variables and their potential impact on the investment. The model could be tested and refined using historical data and adjusted as new information becomes available. The output would be a prediction of the potential outcomes of the investment based on the model’s calculations.

`23 - Modeling the spread of a forest fire and analyzing the effectiveness of different containment strategies.`

Develop a computer model of the forest fire spread using data on wind direction, temperature, humidity, and fuel load. The model could be calibrated using historical data on past forest fires to ensure its accuracy. Different containment strategies could then be simulated in the model, such as creating fire breaks or using water or fire retardant chemicals to slow the spread of the fire. The effectiveness of each strategy could be evaluated by comparing the simulated fire spread with and without the strategy in place.

`24 - Analyzing the behavior of different types of optimization problems and their applications in engineering and computer science.`

Conduct a literature review to identify different types of optimization problems and their applications in engineering and computer science. Develop a framework for analyzing the behavior of these problems, taking into account factors such as the size of the problem, the complexity of the solution space, and the type of optimization algorithm used. Apply this framework to a set of case studies, comparing the performance of different optimization algorithms and identifying best practices for solving different types of optimization problems.

`25 - Investigating the properties of different types of geometric transformations and their applications in computer graphics and animation.`

Conduct a literature review to gather information on the properties of different geometric transformations and their applications in computer graphics and animation. This could include translations, rotations, scaling, and shearing. Develop a set of test cases to demonstrate the use of these transformations in creating different types of graphics and animations. The results of these tests could be used to compare the effectiveness of different types of transformations for different applications. Additionally, the limitations and challenges associated with each transformation could be identified and discussed.

`26 - Developing a model to predict the outcomes of an election based on polling data.`

Collect polling data from a representative sample of the population and analyze it using statistical methods such as regression analysis or machine learning algorithms. The model would need to be trained on historical election data to ensure its accuracy. The output of the model would be a prediction of the likely outcome of the election based on the polling data and the historical trends. The model could also be used to identify key factors that are driving voter behavior and to test different scenarios, such as changes in voter turnout or shifts in public opinion.

`27 - Analyzing the behavior of different types of integrals and their applications in calculus and physics.`

Conduct a series of experiments to analyze the behavior of different types of integrals, such as definite and indefinite integrals, and their applications in calculus and physics. For example, one experiment could involve calculating the area under a curve using both definite and indefinite integrals and comparing the results. Another experiment could involve analyzing the motion of an object using calculus and determining its velocity and acceleration at different points in time. The results of these experiments could be used to develop a deeper understanding of the behavior of integrals and their applications in various fields.

`28 - Studying the properties of different types of probability distributions and their applications in statistics and finance.`

Conduct a literature review to gather information on different types of probability distributions and their applications in statistics and finance. Develop a theoretical framework to analyze the properties of these distributions and their relevance in different contexts. Use statistical software to simulate data and test the theoretical framework. Analyze the results and draw conclusions about the usefulness of different probability distributions in various applications.

`29 - Developing a model to predict the outcomes of a marketing campaign based on consumer data.`

Collect consumer data such as demographics, purchasing habits, and social media activity. Use this data to identify patterns and trends that can be used to develop a predictive model. The model would need to be trained using historical data on marketing campaigns and their outcomes. Once the model is trained, it can be used to predict the outcomes of future marketing campaigns based on the input data. The accuracy of the model can be tested by comparing its predictions to the actual outcomes of the campaigns.

`30 - Investigating the properties of different types of symmetry and their relationship to geometry and physics.`

Conduct a study of different types of symmetry, such as bilateral, radial, and rotational symmetry. This could involve creating models or diagrams of different symmetrical shapes and analyzing their properties, such as the number of axes of symmetry and the angles of rotation. The relationship between symmetry and geometry could be explored by examining how different symmetrical shapes can be used to create geometric patterns. The relationship between symmetry and physics could be investigated by exploring how symmetrical structures are used in physics, such as in the design of crystals or the study of particle physics.

`31 - Modeling the spread of a rumor or news story through a population and analyzing its impact.`

Develop a mathematical model that simulates the spread of the rumor or news story through a population. This model could take into account factors such as the initial number of people who hear the rumor, the rate at which they share it with others, and the likelihood that each person will believe and share the rumor. The impact of the rumor could be analyzed by looking at factors such as changes in people’s behavior or attitudes, or the spread of related rumors or misinformation. The model could be refined and tested using data from real-world examples of rumor or news story propagation.

`32 - Analyzing the behavior of different types of exponential growth and decay functions and their applications in science and engineering.`

Use mathematical models to analyze the behavior of exponential growth and decay functions. This could involve studying the equations that describe these functions, graphing them to visualize their behavior, and analyzing how they are used in various fields such as biology, economics, and physics. Applications could include modeling population growth, decay of radioactive materials, and the spread of diseases. The results of this analysis could be used to inform decision-making in these fields and to develop more accurate models for predicting future trends.

`33 - Modeling the spread of a pandemic through a population and analyzing the effectiveness of different intervention strategies.`

Develop a mathematical model that simulates the spread of the pandemic through a population, taking into account factors such as the transmission rate, incubation period, and recovery rate. The model could be used to predict the number of cases over time and the effectiveness of different intervention strategies, such as social distancing, mask-wearing, and vaccination. The model would need to be validated using real-world data and adjusted as new information becomes available. The results of the analysis could be used to inform public health policies and interventions to control the spread of the pandemic.

`34 - Analyzing the behavior of different types of functions and their applications in science and engineering.`

Conduct a study of different types of functions, such as linear, quadratic, exponential, and logarithmic functions, and their applications in science and engineering. This could involve analyzing real-world data sets and modeling them using different types of functions to determine which function best fits the data. The study could also explore the use of functions in fields such as physics, chemistry, and economics, and how they are used to make predictions and solve problems. The results of the study could be presented in a report or presentation, highlighting the importance of understanding the behavior of different types of functions in various fields.

`35 - Analyzing the behavior of different types of numerical methods for solving differential equations and their applications in science and engineering.`

Conduct a series of simulations using different numerical methods for solving differential equations, such as Euler’s method, Runge-Kutta methods, and finite difference methods. The simulations could involve modeling physical phenomena such as fluid flow, heat transfer, or chemical reactions. The accuracy and efficiency of each method could be compared by analyzing the error and computational time for each simulation. The results could be applied to optimize numerical methods for solving differential equations in various scientific and engineering applications.

`36 - Developing a model to predict the outcomes of a medical treatment based on patient data and medical history.`

Collect patient data and medical history, including demographic information, medical conditions, medications, and treatment outcomes. Use statistical analysis and machine learning algorithms to develop a predictive model that can accurately predict the outcomes of a medical treatment based on patient data and medical history. The model would need to be validated using a separate set of patient data to ensure its accuracy and reliability. The model could then be used to inform medical decision-making and improve patient outcomes.

`37 - Analyzing the behavior of different types of linear regression models and their applications in analyzing trends in public opinion polls.`

Collect data from public opinion polls on a particular topic of interest, such as political preferences or social attitudes. Use different types of linear regression models, such as simple linear regression, multiple linear regression, and logistic regression, to analyze the data and identify trends and patterns. Compare the performance of the different models and determine which one is most appropriate for the specific data set and research question. The results of the analysis could be used to make predictions or inform policy decisions.

`38 - Developing a model to predict the growth of a startup company based on market trends and financial data.`

Collect market trend data and financial data for a range of startup companies. Use statistical analysis to identify patterns and correlations between the data. Develop a predictive model based on these patterns and correlations, taking into account factors such as industry trends, competition, funding, and management. The model could be tested and refined using data from existing startups, and could be used to make predictions about the growth potential of new startups based on their characteristics and market conditions.

`39 - Studying the properties of different types of statistical distributions and their applications in analyzing public health data.`

Analyze public health data using different statistical distributions such as normal, Poisson, and binomial distributions. This would involve understanding the properties and characteristics of each distribution and selecting the appropriate one based on the nature of the data being analyzed. The data could then be plotted and analyzed using statistical software to identify trends and patterns, and to draw conclusions about the health outcomes being studied. The results could be presented in the form of graphs, tables, and statistical summaries.

`40 - Investigating the properties of different types of series and their convergence or divergence.`

Conduct a series of tests on different types of series, such as geometric, arithmetic, and harmonic series. Use mathematical formulas and calculations to determine their convergence or divergence. Graphs and charts could be used to visually represent the data and make comparisons between the different types of series. The results of the tests could be analyzed to draw conclusions about the properties of each type of series and their behavior under different conditions.

`41 - Analyzing the behavior of different types of functions and their limits.`

Graph the different types of functions and analyze their behavior as the input values approach certain limits. This could involve finding the asymptotes, determining if the function is continuous or discontinuous at certain points, and identifying any points of inflection. The results could be presented in a report or presentation, highlighting the similarities and differences between the different types of functions and their limits.

`42 - Investigating the properties of different types of sets and their relationships in set theory.`

Conduct a comparative analysis of different types of sets, such as finite and infinite sets, empty sets, and subsets. Investigate their properties, such as cardinality, intersection, union, and complement. Use diagrams and examples to illustrate the relationships between the different types of sets. This analysis could be used to develop a deeper understanding of set theory and its applications in various fields.

`43 - Exploring the properties of different types of number systems, such as real, complex, or p-adic numbers.`

Conduct a literature review of the properties of different number systems and compile a list of key characteristics and equations. Then, design a series of mathematical problems that test these properties for each type of number system. These problems could include solving equations, graphing functions, and analyzing patterns. The results of these problems could be used to compare and contrast the properties of each number system.

`44 - Developing a model to predict the behavior of a physical system using calculus of variations.`

Collect data on the physical system being studied, such as its initial state and any external factors that may affect its behavior. Use the calculus of variations to develop a mathematical model that predicts the system’s behavior over time. The model can then be tested against real-world observations to determine its accuracy and refine the model as needed. The final output would be a reliable model that accurately predicts the behavior of the physical system.

`45 - Investigating the properties of different types of topological spaces and their relationships in topology.`

Conduct a study of the different types of topological spaces, including Euclidean spaces, metric spaces, and topological manifolds. Analyze their properties, such as compactness, connectedness, and continuity, and explore how they are related to each other. This could involve creating visual representations of the spaces, such as diagrams or models, and using mathematical tools to analyze their properties. The results of the study could be used to better understand the fundamental principles of topology and their applications in various fields.

`46 - Analyzing the behavior of different types of integrals, such as line integrals or surface integrals, and their applications in physics and engineering.`

Conduct a literature review on the different types of integrals and their applications in physics and engineering. This could include researching the use of line integrals in calculating work done by a force field or the use of surface integrals in calculating flux through a surface. Based on the findings, develop a research question or hypothesis related to the behavior of a specific type of integral and its application in a particular field. Design and conduct an experiment or simulation to test the hypothesis and analyze the results to draw conclusions about the behavior of the integral and its practical applications.

`47 - Developing a model to predict the behavior of a chemical reaction using chemical kinetics.`

Collect data on the initial concentrations of reactants, temperature, and other relevant factors for the chemical reaction being studied. Use this data to develop a mathematical model that predicts the behavior of the reaction over time. The model could be tested by comparing its predictions to actual experimental data collected during the reaction. Adjustments could be made to the model as needed to improve its accuracy. The final model could be used to predict the behavior of the reaction under different conditions or to optimize reaction conditions for maximum efficiency.

`48 - Investigating the properties of different types of algebraic structures, such as groups, rings, or fields.`

Conduct a thorough literature review to gather information on the properties of different algebraic structures. Develop a clear research question or hypothesis to guide the investigation. Choose a specific algebraic structure to focus on and collect data by performing calculations and analyzing examples. Compare and contrast the properties of the chosen algebraic structure with other types of algebraic structures to draw conclusions about their similarities and differences. Present findings in a clear and organized manner, using appropriate mathematical language and notation.

`49 - Analyzing the behavior of different types of functions, such as trigonometric, logarithmic, or hyperbolic functions, and their applications in science and engineering.`

Conduct a study of the behavior of different types of functions, such as trigonometric, logarithmic, or hyperbolic functions, and their applications in science and engineering. This study could involve analyzing real-world data sets and identifying which type of function best fits the data. The study could also involve creating models using different types of functions to predict future outcomes or behavior. The results of this study could be used to inform decision-making in fields such as engineering, finance, or physics.

`50 - Developing a model to predict the behavior of a financial market using mathematical finance.`

Collect data on the financial market, such as stock prices, interest rates, and economic indicators. Use mathematical models, such as stochastic calculus and differential equations, to analyze the data and develop a predictive model. The model could be tested and refined using historical data and validated using real-time data. The output would be a model that can be used to predict the behavior of the financial market and inform investment decisions.

`51 - Investigating the properties of different types of complex systems and their behavior, such as network dynamics, agent-based models, or game theory.`

Develop a simulation model for each type of complex system being investigated. The model would need to incorporate the relevant variables and interactions between agents or components of the system. The behavior of the system could then be observed and analyzed under different conditions or scenarios. This would allow for a better understanding of the properties and dynamics of each type of complex system and how they may behave in real-world situations.

`52 - Analyzing the behavior of different types of partial differential equations and their applications in physics and engineering.`

Conduct a literature review to identify different types of partial differential equations and their applications in physics and engineering. Develop mathematical models to simulate the behavior of these equations and analyze their solutions using numerical methods. The results of the analysis could be used to gain insights into the behavior of physical systems and to develop new technologies or improve existing ones. Examples of applications could include fluid dynamics, heat transfer, and electromagnetic fields.

`53 - Developing a model to predict the behavior of a fluid using fluid dynamics.`

Use computational fluid dynamics software to create a model of the fluid system being studied. The software would simulate the behavior of the fluid under different conditions, such as changes in flow rate or temperature. The model could be validated by comparing its predictions to experimental data. Once validated, the model could be used to predict the behavior of the fluid under different conditions, such as changes in the geometry of the system or the addition of different chemicals. These predictions could be used to optimize the design and operation of the fluid system.

`54 - Investigating the properties of different types of geometric objects, such as manifolds or curves, and their applications in geometry and physics.`

Conduct a literature review to gather information on the properties of different geometric objects and their applications in geometry and physics. This could involve researching existing theories and models, as well as conducting experiments or simulations to test these theories. The findings could then be analyzed and synthesized to draw conclusions about the properties of different geometric objects and their potential applications in various fields. This could also involve developing new theories or models based on the findings.

`55 - Analyzing the behavior of different types of stochastic processes, such as random walks or Markov chains, and their applications in probability theory and statistics.`

Conduct simulations of different stochastic processes using software such as R or Python. Analyze the behavior of the simulations and compare them to theoretical predictions. Use the results to draw conclusions about the properties of the different stochastic processes and their applications in probability theory and statistics. Additionally, explore real-world examples of stochastic processes, such as stock prices or weather patterns, and analyze their behavior using the concepts learned from the simulations.

`56 - Developing a model to predict the behavior of a biological system using mathematical biology, such as population dynamics, epidemiology, or ecology.`

Collect data on the biological system being studied, such as population size, birth and death rates, and environmental factors. Use this data to develop a mathematical model that can predict the behavior of the system over time. The model can be tested and refined using additional data and compared to real-world observations to ensure its accuracy. This model could be used to make predictions about the future behavior of the system, such as the spread of a disease or the impact of environmental changes on a population.

`57 - Investigating the properties of different types of wave phenomena, such as sound waves or electromagnetic waves, and their applications in physics and engineering.`

Conduct experiments to study the properties of different types of wave phenomena, such as frequency, wavelength, amplitude, and speed. These experiments could involve using instruments such as oscilloscopes, microphones, and antennas to measure and analyze the waves. Applications of these wave phenomena could include designing communication systems, medical imaging technologies, and musical instruments. The results of these experiments could be presented in a report or presentation, highlighting the key findings and their significance in physics and engineering.

`58 - Analyzing the behavior of different types of optimization problems in dynamic environments, such as optimal control or dynamic programming.`

Conduct simulations of different optimization algorithms in dynamic environments, using various scenarios and parameters to test their performance. The results could be analyzed to determine which algorithms are most effective in different types of dynamic environments and under what conditions. This information could be used to develop more efficient and effective optimization strategies for real-world applications.

`59 - Developing a model to predict the behavior of a social network using social network analysis, such as centrality measures, community detection, or opinion dynamics.`

Collect data on the social network, such as the number of connections between individuals, the frequency and content of interactions, and any changes in the network over time. Use social network analysis techniques to identify patterns and trends in the data, such as the most influential individuals, the formation of subgroups or communities, and the spread of opinions or behaviors. Develop a model based on these findings that can predict future behavior or changes in the network. The model could be tested and refined using additional data or by comparing its predictions to real-world outcomes.

`60 - Investigating the properties of different types of algebraic curves and surfaces, such as elliptic curves or algebraic varieties, and their applications in algebraic geometry.`

Conduct a literature review to gather information on the properties of different types of algebraic curves and surfaces. Use mathematical software to generate and analyze examples of these curves and surfaces. Explore their applications in algebraic geometry, such as in cryptography or coding theory. Present findings in a research paper or presentation.

## How can I score highly?

Scoring highly in the mathematics internal assessment in the IB requires a combination of a thorough understanding of mathematical concepts and techniques, effective problem-solving skills, and clear and effective communication.

To achieve a high score, students should start by choosing a topic that interests them and that they can explore in depth. They should also take the time to plan and organize their report, making sure to include a clear introduction, a thorough development, and a thoughtful conclusion. The introduction in particular should demonstrate students’ genuine personal engagement with the topics.

Students should pay attention to the formal presentation and mathematical communication, making sure to use proper mathematical notation, correct grammar and spelling, and appropriate use of headings and subheadings.

Finally, students should make sure to engage with the problem and reflect on their own learning, and also make connections between different mathematical concepts and techniques. If they feel difficulty in these, then taking the help of an **IB tutor **can prove to be quite beneficial.

By following these steps, students can increase their chances of scoring highly on their mathematics internal assessment and contribute positively to their overall grade in the IB Mathematics course.